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Construction Drawings

Construction Drawings is the last stage of the design process and it is focused on details. Each stage gradually shifts from the general idea to specific details: the Design Brief defines the program, the Concept Design defines the general idea/concept with schematic layout and volumes, Design Development refines the concept design (with layout plans, cross sections and elevations), and finally the Construction documents will specify every project element.

I can help at any stage. 

Construction Drawings serve two purposes: to apply for a building permit from the local authority, and to construct the building.

The ten types of Construction Drawings are explained in the links below:

1

Project information

This sheet is not usually included on a residential project; it shows the way the building sits on the entire property. For a simple project it includes landscaping, concrete work and exit safety requirements.

2

Demolition Plans

The Demolition Plans show the existing state of the building (a vital element for a new design on an existing bulding). They are covered with notes for what needs to be removed (and protected/preserved) in order to make way for new construction.

3

Floor Plans

The Floor Plan sheets are the coordinated center of the set. In addition to showing a general overview of where every building element will be located (with detailed dimensions), the Floor Plans are filled with keynotes, door/window and wall type tags and other types of callouts to drawings in the set.

4

Elevations and Sections

Elevations are the flat images of the outside faces of the building.  The elevation sheets show heights of existing and new building elements, detail the materials to be applied or preserved on the exterior and are covered with keynotes designating important info about the exterior construction.
Section Drawings show hypothetical slices right through the center of the building and demonstrate important things like wall and foundation construction, floor-to-floor heights and the height relationships between inside and the ground plane outside.

5

Finish Plans

There are different types of Finish Plans.  The most important is probably the Reflected Ceiling Plan (RCP) which shows a view up, to the ceiling, instead of down to the floor. The RCP drawings show different ceiling material types (drywall, plaster, wood cladding, pressed tin, etc) and also the locations of most of the lights. The same plan or a new Circuits plan typically show the locations of light switches that will operate all those ceiling mounted lights.
For residential projects (when the services of an electrical engineer aren’t needed) we also provide a Power Plan which shows the location of all the outlets and any data points for cable TV or internet access throughout the building.  
We will note locations for power to all appliances and also convenience outlets for personal devices as needed. The Finish Plans show what materials should be applied to the walls and floor throughout the building.  
We do this by using finish tags (designations like F01 for the first type of flooring material, B04 for the fourth variety of baseboard, or W06 for the sixth specified wall finish). These tags refer to a Finish Schedule, found in the 7.Sheets – a detailed spreadsheet which shows the manufacturer, product name and other qualities.

6

Interior Elevations

The Interior Elevations sheets show flat views of the vertical surfaces in a building – interior walls.  We use them to show wall finish types, new built in furniture, the locations of power outlets, lights and switches and the heights of different elements. A residential project will certainly need interior elevations for each bathroom wall, for the kitchen and for any interesting built in furniture or shelving options.

7

Schedules and Wall types

For a Construction Documents drawing set the word “Schedule” means a spreadsheet, not a timeline.  We use them to keep track of the various detailed product information for finish types, for sizes and types of doors and windows, and for any equipment used in kitchens etc.
The doors sheet shows the spreadsheet listing all the doors in the project with their dimensions, materials, finishes, handles and other notes(how they open, glass or decorative elements). A similar sheet details windows, another info for equipment and finishes, and a fourth sheet shows details of each type of wall.

8

Details

These sheets show details that are standard throughout the building like how one type of flooring transitions to another or the way to construct a new staircase.

9

Plumbing

Plumbing drawings show the location and size of pipes to provide fresh water and take away waste. They also show vent risers to let sewer air up out of the building safely and without smell.

10

Other consultant drawings

For a large or complex project the Construction Documents might include acoustical design information or content provided by a specialty kitchen consultant. Once I have created and issued the Construction Drawings set for permit, there is an inevitable wait period while it is processed by the relevant authority.

Have a look at a real project: